Vedic Calendar
Introduction

The Vedic calendar is not a manmade invention but a cognition of the functioning of natural law, both gross and subtle, in the universe. Simply putting attention on this calendar can help bring our awareness into greater harmony with the functioning of natural law.

The Vedic calendar is one aspect of Vedic civilization. Although this civilization has primarily been located in India in historical times, the rules for the Vedic calendar can be apply to any place in the world and give different results from place to place.

A printed Vedic calendar for time period such as a month or a year is called a pañchāngam. Many sites can generate a pañchāngam for India, but the author has found that only a few can generate panchangams for other places.

Generating and printing pañchāngams

The best site the author knows of for generating a printed pañchāngam anywhere in the world is My Panchang  •  mypanchang.com, which is duplicated at mypanchangam.com.

Unfortunately, the pages that are generated by this site are suitable for printing only after several steps of modification, to remove ads and other extraneous material. This section steps you through this process.

The following instructions assume you are using Firefox as your browser. Other browsers should work in a similar manner. These instructions are valid as of December 2016.

  1. Go to mypanchang.com or mypanchangam.com.
  2. In the Panchangam box at the right, select the Year, and select the Country, State, and City to the location closest to you. (Do not click List of Cities.) Nearness in longitude is more important than nearness in latitude. (For Fairfield, Iowa, the nearest location is Coralville, Iowa.)
  3. Click Panchangam. This takes you to a page titled Panchang for <place><year>.
  4. Click the desired month.
  5. In the middle column, headed Purnimant Panchangam, click हिन्दी/संस्कृत पंचांग for text in Devanagari, or Panchangam - Horizontal for text in Roman script.
  6. Save the new and full moon images as follows.
    1. Right click on each moon image.
    2. Select Save Image As.
    3. Leave File name and Save as type unchanged.
    4. Click Save.
  7. Save the page as follows.
    1. Use File | Save Page As or press Ctrl-S.
    2. Set Save as type to Web page, complete. (Do not use Web page, HTML only as this does not save enough data.)
    3. Set File name to something meaningful, such as Panchangam01.htm.
    4. Click Save.
  8. For additional months in the same year, click the links near the top of the calendar page, and save these pages.
  9. Exit Firefox.
  10. The complete save creates a subfolder for the file which contains auxilliary files. You can delete these subfolders, as the changes below will eliminate the need for them.
  11. For a Devanagari text page, open the saved files in a text editor and edit them as follows. If you don’t have a text editor, use Notepad.
    1. The second line in the file should be <center>. About 20 lines further down, there should be a line </center>. Delete these two lines and all the lines between them.
    2. About 50 lines below this, there should be a line that starts with </tbody></table><font … >. Delete all text from <font … > to the end of the file, except for the last line, which should be </body></html>.
    3. Search for Fullmoon.gif and Newmoon.gif and delete the any path in front of the file name.
    4. Replace each occurrence of </u></b><br> with </u></b> followed by a space.
    5. At this point, the file can be printed on three or more sheets. If your editor can search and replace with regular expressions, you can make the file print on one sheet by:
      1. Deleting the material from each occurrence of नक्षत्र (nakshatra) up to but not including the next </span>.
      2. Deleting other unwanted text.
      3. In months which have six weeks, moving the days in the sixth week to blank positions in the first week. Each week starts with <tr> and ends with </tr>, and each day starts with <td and ends with </td>.
      4. Reducing the print scale. See the directions below.
    6. You can further reduce the print size of the by:
      1. In months which have six weeks, moving the days in the sixth week to blank positions in the first week. Each week starts with <tr> and ends with </tr>, and each day starts with <td and ends with </td>.
      2. Reducing the print scale. See the printing directions below.
    7. Save changes and exit the text editor.
  12. For a Roman text page, open the saved files in a text editor and edit them as follows. If you don’t have a text editor, use Notepad.
    1. Between the <head> and </head> tags, remove everything except the <title></title> tag.
    2. After </head>, remove the two comment lines.
    3. In the <body … > tag, remove all attributes, i.e. make it simply <body>.
    4. Starting with the line after <body>, remove all lines down to but not including the line beginning with <table border="1">.
    5. Search for the next occurrence of </table>. After this, remove everything down to but not including </body></html>.
    6. Search for Fullmoon.gif and Newmoon.gif and delete the any path in front of the file name.
    7. At this point, the file can be printed on two or more sheets. If your editor can search and replace with regular expressions, you can make the file print on one sheet by:
      1. Deleting the material from each occurrence of Shaka: up to but not including the next Tamil Month:; and
      2. Deleting the material from each occurrence of Y: (yoga) up to but not including the next </span>.
      3. Deleting other unwanted text.
    8. You can further reduce the print size of the by:
      1. In months which have six weeks, moving the days in the sixth week to blank positions in the first week. Each week starts with <tr> and ends with </tr>, and each day starts with <td and ends with </td>.
      2. Reducing the print scale. See the printing directions below.
    9. Delete all occurrences of Purnimant followed by four spaces.
    10. Replace all ( with a space followed by (.
    11. Replace all ) with ).
    12. Save changes and exit the text editor.
  13. Open up the file in Firefox. All the ads and other extraneous material should now be gone, and the table should start at the top of the page.
  14. Prepare to print as follows.
    1. Click the Open menu icon in the upper right corner and then click Print, or go to File | Page Preview. This shows how the file will appear on a printed page.
    2. Click Page Setup. If you use Firefox to print other files, you may wish to record the old values in this area before you change them.
    3. Under Format & Options, set Orientation to Portrait, uncheck Shrink to fit Page Width, and check Print background.
    4. If the file is too big for the paper size, set Scale to a lower value.
    5. Under Margins & Header/Footer, set all margins to 0.2 inches if you are using letter size paper, or 5 millimeters if you are using A4 size paper, and set all headers and footers to --blank--.
  15. Finally, Print each file.
Understanding the pañchāngam

The following material refers to information in the pañchāngam described in the previous section, from My Panchang. Much of this material also applies to other pañchāngam.

Days of the week

The column headers are the days of the week.

रविवार Ravivāra Sunday
सोमवार Somavāra Monday
मंगलवार Maṅgalavāra Tuesday
बुधवार Budhavāra Wednesday
गुरुवार Guruvāra Thursday
शुक्रवार Śhukravāra Friday
शनिवार Śhanivāra Saturday

Daily information

The first seven lines in each box show important information for each day. (Lines after the seventh are more technical.)

1 सूर्योदय Sūryodaya Sunrise
2 सूर्यास्त Sūryāsta Sunset
3 चंद्रोदय Chandrodaya Moonrise
4 (मास) (Māsa) Lunar month (see below)
5 शुक्ल / कृष्ण पक्ष Śhukla / Kṛiṣhṇa pakṣha Bright / Dark fortnight (see below)
6 तिथि Tithi Lunar day (see below)
7 नक्षत्र Nakṣhatra Asterism or lunar mansion

Rāśhis

A rāśhi is a Vedic sign of the zodiac. Rāśhis are similar but not identical to Western astrological signs. Vedic signs are sidereal (tied to the stars), whereas Western signs are tropical (tied to the earth).

The Vedic zodiac must therefore allow for the precession of the equinoxes, whereby the sidereal zodiac slowly moves forward through the tropical zodiac, making one circuit every 26,000 years. At the present time, the angle between the two zodiacs, called the ayanāmśha, is about 24 degrees. Therefore, there is only a one third overlap between between rāśhis and signs. Currently, the sun transits from one rāśhi to another about the 15th to 17th of each Western month.

राशि Rāśhi Sign Western month
मेष Meṣha Aries April-May
वृषभ Vṛiṣhabha Taurus May-June
मिथुन Mithuna Gemini June-July
कर्क Karka Cancer July-August
सिंह Siṃha Leo August-September
कन्या Kanyā Virgo September-October
तुला Tulā Libra October-November
वृश्चिक Vṛiśhchika Scorpio November-December
धनु Dhanu SaggitariusDecember-January
मकर Makara Capricorn January-February
कुम्भ Kumbha Aquarius February-March
मीन Mīna Pisces March-April

Solar months

A solar month is the time the sun takes to transit a given rāśhi. These months do not have separate names, but we will use a rāśhi name as the name of a solar month. For example, when we say “Meṣha”, we mean the solar month during which the sun transits Meṣha, and when we say “rāśhi”, we mean a solar month.

Māsas

A māsa is a Vedic month. A māsa ends on either the full or new moon and lasts for 29 or 30 days, or exactly 30 or lunar days (see below). The full moon is called pūrṇimaḥ, and the new moon amāvasyā. In most of north India, a māsa ends on the full moon. Such a month is called a pūrṇimānt (full moon end) māsa. In the rest of India, generally the south, a māsa ends on the new moon and is called amāvasyānt (new moon end) māsa.

मास Māsa Western month for
pūrṇimānt masa
Western month for
amāvasyānt masa
चैत्र Chaitra March-April March-April or April-May
वैशाख Vaiśhākha April-May April-May or May-June
ज्येष्ठ Jyeṣhṭha May-June May-June or June-July
आषाढ Āṣhāḍha June-July June-July or July-August
श्रावण Śhrāvaṇa July-August July-August or August-September
भाद्रपद Bhādrapada August-September August-September or September-October
आश्विन Āśhvina September-OctoberSeptember-October or October-November
कार्तिक Kārtika October-November October-November or November-December
मार्गशीर्ष Mārgaśhīrṣha November-DecemberNovember-December or December-January
पौष Pauṣha December-January December-January or January-February
माघ Māgha January-February January-February or February-March
फाल्गुन Phālguna February-March February-March or March-April

Pakṣhas

Within a month, a day is identified with a pakṣha and a tithi.

The pakṣha is the fortnight or half month. When the moon is waxing (going from new to full), it is called śhukla pakṣha (bright fortnight). When the moon is waning (going from full to new), it is called kṛiṣhṇa pakṣha (dark fortnight).

The śhukla pakṣhas of pūrṇimānt and amāvasyānt māsas always have the same māsa name. But the kṛiṣhṇa pakṣhas always have different names: the pūrṇimānt name is one month ahead of the amāvasyānt name.

The tithi is a lunar day and is explained below.

Types of māsas

  • Since the lunar month lasts 29.5 days, and a solar month, a rāśhi, lasts an average of 30.4 days, there is usually one new moon for any given rāśhi. In this case, the lunar month is an ordinary māsa.
  • About once every 3 years, there are two new moons for a rāśhi. Then another māsa is added, called an adhika māsa.
  • Rarely, at most once every 19 years, there is no new moon for a rāśhi. One of the māsas is skipped, and the next māsa is called a kṣhaya māsa.

Ordinary pūrṇimānt māsas

  • Starting with the new moon that occurs during a rāśhi, the preceding full moon is the end of the pūrṇimānt māsa.
  • The day after the full moon preceding this one is the beginning of the pūrṇimānt māsa.
  • The first māsa is Chaitra, which occurs when the rāśhi is Meṣha. Other māsas correspond to the other rāśhis in a parallel sequence given by the above two tables.

Ordinary amāvasyānt māsas

  • The new moon that occurs during a rāśhi is the end of the amāvasyānt māsa.
  • The day after the new moon preceding this one is the beginning of the amāvasyānt māsa.
  • The first māsa is Chaitra, which occurs when the rāśhi is Meṣha, which is April 14 to May 14, roughly. Other māsas correspond to the other rāśhis in a parallel sequence given by the above two tables.

Example ordinary māsas

The following example is for two rāśhis and māsas in 2012.

Rāśhis
March 14 toApril 13Sun in Mīna
April 13 toMay 14Sun in Meṣha
New and full moons
March 7PūrṇimaḥSun in Kumbha
March 22Amāvasyā Sun in Mīna
April 6PūrṇimaḥSun in Mīna
April 20Amāvasyā Sun in Meṣha
May 5PūrṇimaḥSun in Meṣha
May 20Amāvasyā Sun in Vṛiṣhabha
Pūrṇimānt pakṣhas
March 8 toMarch 22Chaitra kṛiṣhṇa pakṣha
March 23 toApril 6Chaitra śhukla pakṣha
April 7 toApril 20Vaiśhākha kṛiṣhṇa pakṣha
April 21 toMay 5Vaiśhākha śhukla pakṣha
Amāvasyānt pakṣhas
March 8 toMarch 22Phālguna kṛiṣhṇa pakṣha
March 23 toApril 6Chaitra śhukla pakṣha
April 7 toApril 20Chaitra kṛiṣhṇa pakṣha
April 21 toMay 5Vaiśhākha śhukla pakṣha

Adhika māsas

There is usually one new moon for each rāśhi, but about once every 3 years, there are two new moons for a given rāśhi. When this happens, a second, extra month, or leap month, is added after the first month. The extra month is called adhika (additional), e.g. Adhika Chaitra.

Pūrṇimānt adhika māsas

  • The pakṣha ending with the first new moon is an ordinary kṛiṣhṇa pakṣha, except it is named after the new moon in the next rāśhi.
  • The māsa ending with the second new moon in the rāśhi is an adhika māsa named after the new moon in the next rāśhi.
  • The pakṣha following the second new moon is an ordinary śhukla pakṣha, except it is prefixed with the word nija (innate).

Amāvasyānt adhika māsas

  • The māsa ending with the first new moon in the rāśhi is an ordinary māsa.
  • The māsa ending with the second new moon in the rāśhi is an adhika māsa named after the next new moon, which is in the next rāśhi.
  • The māsa ending with the next new moon takes its usual name prefixed with the word nija (innate).

Example adhika māsa

The following example is for an adhika māsa in 2012.

Rāśhis
July 15 toAugust 16Sun in Karka
August 16 toSeptember 16Sun in Siṃha
September 16 toOctober 16Sun in Kanyā
New and full moons
July 18Amāvasyā Sun in Karka
August 1PūrṇimaḥSun in Karka
August 17Amāvasyā Sun in Siṃha
August 31PūrṇimaḥSun in Siṃha
September 15Amāvasyā Sun in Siṃha
September 29PūrṇimaḥSun in Kanyā
October 14Amāvasyā Sun in Kanyā
Pūrṇimānt pakṣhas
July 19 toAugust 1Śhrāva ṇaśhukla pakṣha
August 2 toAugust 17Bhādrapada kṛiṣhṇa pakṣha
August 18 toAugust 31Adhika Bhādrapada śhukla pakṣha
September 1 toSeptember 15Adhika Bhādrapada kṛiṣhṇa pakṣha
September 16 toSeptember 29Nija Bhādrapada śhukla pakṣha
September 30 toOctober 14Āśhvina kṛiṣhṇa pakṣha
Amāvasyānt pakṣhas
July 19 toAugust 1Śhrāva śhukla pakṣha
August 2 toAugust 17Śhrāva kṛiṣhṇa pakṣha
August 18 toAugust 31Adhika Bhādrapada śhukla pakṣha
September 1 toSeptember 15Adhika Bhādrapada kṛiṣhṇa pakṣha
September 16 toSeptember 29Nija Bhādrapada śhukla pakṣha
September 30 toOctober 14Nija Bhādrapada kṛiṣhṇa pakṣha

Kṣhaya māsas

More rarely, roughly once a century, there is no new moon for a rāśhi. In this case, one or both pakṣhas in the māsa for that rāśhi are skipped, and both pakṣhas in the next māsa are called kṣhaya (loss or collapse).

A kṣhaya māsa is always preceded or followed by an adhika māsa. The last kṣhaya māsa was in 1983, and the next will be in 2124.

A kṣhaya māsa is possible because the earth’s orbit is not perfectly circlar, but is slightly elliptical, which changes the length of the solar months, and because the postion of Rāhu and Ketu (the ascending and descending lunar nodes) slightly change the length of the lunar month. A kṣhaya māsa is rare because the lunar month averages one day longer than the solar month, and the possible changes in the lengths of each are small.

A kṣhaya māsa can only occur during the solar months of Vṛiśhchika, Dhanu, and Makara, when the earth is near perihelion (closest approach to the sun). At these times, the earth is moving more quickly and the solar months are slightly shorter.

Conversely, an adhika māsa is more likely during the opposite months, when the earth is near aphelion (farthest egress from the sun). But since the lunar month averages one day longer than the solar month, an adhika māsa is much more likely than a kṣhaya māsa, and an adhika māsa can occur at any time of year.

Example kṣhaya māsa

The following example is for the kṣhaya māsa in 1983.

Rāśhis
December 15 16:15 toJanuary 14 14:27Sun in Dhanu
January 14 14:27 toFebruary 13 3:27Sun in Makara
February 13 3:27 toMarch 15 0:22Sun in Kumbha
March 15 0:22 toApril 14 8:54Sun in Mīna
April 14 8:54 toMay 14 19:17Sun in Meṣha
New and full moons
December 15 3:18Amāvasyā Sun in Vṛiśhchika
December 29 PūrṇimaḥSun in Dhanu
January 14 10:30Amāvasyā Sun in Dhanu
January 28 PūrṇimaḥSun in Makara
February 13 6:02Amāvasyā Sun in Kumbha
February 27 PūrṇimaḥSun in Kumbha
March 14 23:13Amāvasyā Sun in Kumbha
March 28 PūrṇimaḥSun in Mīna
April 13 13:28Amāvasyā Sun in Mīna
April 27 PūrṇimaḥSun in Meṣha
May 12 14:25Amāvasyā Sun in Meṣha
Pūrṇimānt pakṣhas
December 15 toDecember 29Mārgaśhīrṣha śhukla pakṣha
December 30 toJanuary 14Pauṣha kṛiṣhṇa pakṣha
January 14 toJanuary 28Kshaya Māgha śhukla pakṣha
January 29 toFebruary 12Kshaya Māgha kṛiṣhṇa pakṣha
February 13 toFebruary 27Adhika Phālguna śhukla pakṣha
February 27 toMarch 14Adhika Phālguna kṛiṣhṇa pakṣha
March 15 toMarch 28Nija Phālguna śhukla pakṣha
March 29 toApril 13Chaitra kṛiṣhṇa pakṣha
April 14 toApril 27Chaitra śhukla pakṣha
April 28 toMay 12Vaiśhākha kṛiṣhṇa pakṣha
Amāvasyānt pakṣhas
December 15 toDecember 29Mārgaśhīrṣha śhukla pakṣha
December 30 toJanuary 14Mārgaśhīrṣha kṛiṣhṇa pakṣha
January 14 toJanuary 28Kshaya Māgha śhukla pakṣha
January 29 toFebruary 12Kshaya Māgha kṛiṣhṇa pakṣha
February 13 toFebruary 27Adhika Phālguna śhukla pakṣha
February 27 toMarch 14Adhika Phālguna kṛiṣhṇa pakṣha
March 15 toMarch 28Nija Phālguna śhukla pakṣha
March 29 toApril 13Nija Phālguna kṛiṣhṇa pakṣha
April 14 toApril 27Chaitra śhukla pakṣha
April 28 toMay 12Chaitra kṛiṣhṇa pakṣha

Tithis

The tithi is the number of the day within the pakṣha. These numbers run from 1 to 15, except the 15th day is called pūrṇima (full moon day) or amāvasya (new moon day). For example, in 2009, March 2 was the 6th day of the bright fortnight of Phālguna, and thus the Vedic term for that date is Phālguna Śhukla Ṣhaṣhṭī.

तिथि Tithi Lunar day
प्रतिपदा Pratipadā first (day following full or new moon)
द्वितीया Dvitīyā second
तृतीया Tṛitīyā third
चतुर्थी Chaturthī fourth
पंचमी Pañchamī fifth
षष्टी Ṣhaṣhṭī sixth
सप्तमी Saptamī seventh
अष्टमी Aṣhṭamī eighth
नवमी Navamī ninth
दशमी Daśhamī tenth
एकादशी Ekādaśhī eleventh
द्वादशी Dvādaśhī twelfth
त्रयोदशी Trayodaśhī thirteenth
चतुर्दशी Caturdaśhī fourteenth
पूर्णिमा / अमावस्या Pūrṇimā / Amāvasyā full/new (moon day)

The tithi is also called a lunar day. It differs slightly from the ordinary day, the solar day. The Vedic solar day begins at sunrise, not midnight. A tithi may begin and end at any time during a Vedic solar day. However, customarily an entire solar day is associated with the tithi that is in effect at sunrise. The ending time of each tithi is shown along with the name of the tithi. If this ending time occurs after midnight and before sunrise the solar next day, then the ending time is indicated by an hour number over 24, e.g. “25:47+” means 1:47 a.m. the next calendar day.

The time from one new or full moon to the next is 30 tithis but only 29.5 solar days. Moreover, tithis are measured along the ecliptic rather than the moon’s orbit, so their length varies somewhat over a month. Sometimes a tithi is longer than 24 hours and sometimes it is shorter. A solar day usually comprises parts of two adjacent tithis, but sometimes it comprises an entire tithi and parts of two others, and sometimes it comprises only part of one tithi. Therefore, from one solar day to the next, the tithi associated with the day usually increases by one tithi each day, but sometimes it increases by two tithis, and sometimes the tithi stays the same from one day to the next.

Celebration calendars

A complementary type of pañchāngam that identifies special days in the Vedic calendar is available at Global Good News—Celebrating the Vedic Calendar  •  calendars.globalgoodnews.com/vedic/vedic-calendar.htm.

The dates of special days on this calendar are calculated for Western Europe. In other areas, the dates may be a day earlier or later.

This pañchāngam also needs some special treatment to print out properly. The following instructions assume you are using Firefox as your browser.

  1. Go to Global Good News—Celebrating the Vedic Calendar  •  calendars.globalgoodnews.com/vedic/vedic-calendar.htm
  2. Click on the desired month.
  3. Right click on the calendar image.
  4. Select Save Image As.
  5. Save the image file to a temporary location.
  6. Exit Firefox.
  7. Open the saved image file with an image browser such as IrfanView or a web browser.
  8. Print the file from the image browser or web browser.
Vedic cycles of years

Lifetime of the devas

दैविक वार Daivika vāra Day of the devas 1 year
दैविक मास Daivika māsa Month of the devas 30 days of the devas 30 years
दैविक वर्षDaivika varṣhaYear of the devas 12 months of the devas 360 years
दैविक जीवनDaivika jīvanaLifetime of the devas 100 years of the devas 36,000 years
चरणाः Caraṇā 12 lifetimes of the devas 432,000 years

The chaturyuga

सत्ययुग Satya Yuga 4 caraṇās 1,728,000 = 1.7 × 106 years
त्रेतायुगTretā Yuga 3 caraṇās 1,296,000 = 1.3 × 106 years
द्वापरयुगDvāpara Yuga 2 caraṇās 864,000 = 8.6 × 105 years
कलियुग Kali Yuga 1 caraṇā 432,000 = 4.3 × 105 years
चतुर्युग Chaturyuga = Sat + Tretā + Dvāpara + Kali 10 caraṇās 4,320,000 = 4.3 × 106 years

Our current position in the above cycles

We are currently in Kali Yuga, which spans 1 caraṇā. Sūrya Siddhānta states that Kali Yuga began at midnight on 18 February 3102 BC. Therefore, as of February 2000, Kali Yuga is 5101 years old, about 1.2% of the way through Kali Yuga. In terms of the above cycles, February 2000 is the 2nd year of the 3rd month of the 15th year of the 1st lifetime of the devas.

Avatārs of Viṣhṇu and the caraṇās

An avatār of Viṣhṇu appears near the end of each caraṇā.

First caraṇā 1/4 of the way through Sat Yuga मत्स्य Matsya
Second caraṇā 1/2 of the way through Sat Yuga कूर्म Kūrma
Third caraṇā 3/4 of the way through Sat Yuga वराह Varāha
Fourth caraṇā end of Sat Yuga नृसिंह Nṛisiṃha
Fifth caraṇā 1/3 of the way through Tretā Yugaवामन Vāmana
Sixth caraṇā 2/3 of the way through Tretā YugaपरशुरामParaśhurāma
Seventh caraṇāend of Tretā Yuga राम Rāma
Eighth caraṇā 1/2 way through Dvāpara Yuga बलराम Balarāma
Ninth caraṇā end of Dvāpara Yuga कृष्ण Kṛiṣhṇa
Tenth caraṇā end of Kali Yuga कल्कि Kalki

Other sources list Buddha as an avatār of Viṣhṇu and do not list Balarāma. Buddha appeared about 2,000 years after the end of Dvāpara Yuga and the beginning of Kali Yuga.

The cycles containing chaturyugas

चतुर्युग Caturyuga Chaturyuga 4,320,000 = 4.3 × 106 years
निःसन्धि मन्वन्तर Niḥsandhi manvantara Manvantara without sandhi 71 Chaturyuga 306,720,000 = 3.1 × 108 years
ससन्धि मन्वन्तर Sasandhi manvantara Manvantara with sandhi Manu 308,448,000 = 3.1 × 108 years
निःसन्धि कल्प Niḥsandhi kalpa Kalpa without sandhi 14 Manvantara 4,318,272,000 = 4.3 × 109 years
ससन्धि कल्प Sasandhi kalpa Kalpa with sandhi Day of Brahmā 4,320,000,000 = 4.3 × 109 years
ब्रह्मामास Brahmāmāsa Month of Brahmā 30 Days of Brahmā 129,600,000,000 = 1.3 × 1011 years
ब्रह्मावर्ष Brahmāvarṣha Year of Brahmā 12 Months of Brahmā 1,555,200,000,000 = 1.6 × 1012 years
ब्रह्माजीवन Brahmājīvana Lifetime of Brahmā 100 Years of Brahmā 155,520,000,000,000 = 1.6 × 1014 years
विष्णुःजीवन Viṣhṇuḥjīvana Lifetime of Viṣhṇu 1000 Lifetimes of Brahmā 155,520,000,000,000,000 = 1.6 × 1017 years
शिवःजीवन Śhivaḥjīvana Lifetime of Śhiva 1000 Lifetimes of Viṣhṇu 155,520,000,000,000,000,000 = 1.6 × 1020 years
देवीजीवन Devījīvana Lifetime of Devī 1000 Lifetimes of Śhiva 155,520,000,000,000,000,000,000 = 1.6 × 1023 years

There is a sandhi (transition time) of the length of Sat Yuga (1.728 million years) between manvantaras, which is not part of any chaturyuga. There is another sandhi, also of the length of Sat Yuga, between kalpas, which is not part of any manvantara. In his commentary to Bhagavad Gītā 4:1, Maharishi Mahesh Yogi states that the lifetime of Devī is the longest in creation.

Our current position in the above cycles

Sūrya Siddhānta 1:23 states that we are currently in the 28th chaturyuga of the current manvantara. Using this data, as of February 2000, our position is:

Within the current chaturyuga 1,728,000 + 1,296,000 + 864,000 + 5101 = 3,893,101 years 90%
Within the current manvantara 27 × 4,320,000 + 3,893,101 = 120,533,101 years 39%
Within the current kalpa 6 × 308,448,000 + 120,533,101 = 1,971,221,101 years 46%
Within the current month of Brahmā 1,971,221,101 years 2%
Within the current year of Brahmā 1,971,221,101 years 0.1%
Within the current lifetime of Brahmā 50 × 1,555,200,000,000 + 1,971,221,101 = 77,761,971,221,101 years 50%

This data does not give any information about our current position within the lifetimes of Viṣhṇu, Śhiva, or Devī.

Vedic divisions of a day

There are many systems for the divisions of a day. Here we present three such systems.

60 ghaṭī system

1 day 60 ghaṭī 24 hours
1 घटी ghaṭī 60 vighaṭī24 minutes
1 विघटि vighaṭī 60 liptā 24 seconds
1 लिप्ता liptā 60 viliptā 0.4 sec
1 विलिप्ता vilipta60 para 6.67 × 10-3 sec
1 पर para 60 tatpara 1.11 × 10-4 sec
1 तत्पर tatpara 1.85 × 10-6 sec

30 muhūrta system

1 day 30 muhūrta 24 hours
1 मुहूर्त muhūrta12 kṣhaṇa 48 min
1 क्षण kṣhaṇa 30 kalā 4 min
1 कला kalā 30 kāṣhṭha8 sec
1 काष्ठ kāṣhṭha 18 nimeṣha 0.267 sec
1 निमेष nimeṣha 30 tatpara 1.48 × 10-2 sec
1 तत्पर tatpara 100 truṭi 4.94 × 10-4 sec
1 त्रुटि truṭi 4.94 × 10-6 sec

24 hour system

A third system divides the day into 24 होरा horā. This system, when combined with subdivisions of 60 as in the 60 ghaṭī system, is identical to the Western system.